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|Written||2009-07||Othman Saraj, Janusz A Jankowski|
|Digestive Disease Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom (OS, JAJ); Gastrointestinal Cancer Presentation Group, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom (JAJ); GI Centre, Queen Mary's Hospital, University of London, London, United Kingdom (JAJ)|
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|Other names||Signet ring carcinoma or isolated cell type carcinoma.|
|Inheritance||Autosomal dominant with high penetrance (about 80%), average age of onset is in the 4th decade of life but it could be as early as the teens to the seventies. Germline mutations in CDH1 gene have been associated with this condition (Gayther et al., 1998; Guilford et al., 1998).|
|Note|| Criteria for diagnosis (Brooks-Wilson et al., 2004): |
- Two or more cases of gastric cancer in a family, with at least one diffuse gastric cancer diagnosed before age 50 years.
- Three or more cases of gastric cancer in a family, diagnosed at any age, with at least one documented case of diffuse gastric cancer.
- An individual diagnosed with diffuse gastric cancer before 45 years of age.
- An individual diagnosed with both diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer (no other criteria met).
- One family member diagnosed with diffuse gastric cancer and another with lobular breast cancer (no other criteria met).
- One family member diagnosed with diffuse gastric cancer and another with signet ring colon cancer (no other criteria met).
|Phenotype and clinics|| HDGC forms less than 3% of all gastric cancers (Stone et al., 1999). It often affects younger people in contrast to the other types of gastric cancer. It consists of scattered clusters of poorly differentiated cells involving a large area of the stomach without a macroscopically recognisable margin or formation of a mass or ulcer (linitis plastica). |
There is no known association between genotypic and phenotypic character of the disease (Kaurah and Huntsman, 2006).
Malignant risk: Four fifths of female carriers with CDH1 gene mutations are estimated to develop HDGC by age of 80 years with an additional 40% risk for lobular breast cancer, adding up to 90% for both cancers, while two thirds of males are expected to develop gastric cancer by the same age (Paul et al., 2001).
|Treatment|| Aim of the management is: (1) Curative treatment through early detection and resection of the tumour completely, but unfortunately gastric cancer especially HDGC are usually incurable at presentation. (2) Identifying Germline mutation in CDH1 can provide help and support for family members who are unaffected but carrier of the genetic mutations by developing a plan to reduce the risk of cancer (Brooks-Wilson et al., 2004), through either (a) prophylactic gastrectomy which may be life saving as cancer cells have been detected in all resected stomach specimens in asymptomatic carriers (Huntsman et al., 2001), but with high morbidity and mortality (22-30% and 4-5% respectively (Kelsen et al., 2008)), or through (b) extensive biannual chromo endoscopic surveillance which has its limitation in detecting submucosal lesions in a normal looking mucosa, therefore the best preventive approach is yet to be established (Cisco et al., 2008).|
In view of increase risk of colorectal cancer by 2-3 times and lobular breast cancer in females, surveillance colonoscopy every 3-5 years and regular MRI check of the breast may be required (Cisco et al., 2008; Porter et al., 2002).
|Prognosis||Overall survival in gastric cancer is poor with 28% at 5 years and 20% at 10 years. However if the cancer is detected at early stages (i.e. confined to mucosa and submucosa), >90% will be alive at 5 years compare to 10-20% in advanced gastric cancer even when potentially curative surgery has been carried out (Kelsen et al., 2008; Leung et al., 2009).|
3. Genes involved and Proteins
|Gene Name||CDH1 (cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial))|
|Description||The gene consists of 16 exons and a 65-kb-long intron 2 that span around 100 kb (Berx et al., 1995).|
|Description||E cadherin is a transmembrane calcium dependant glycoprotein (728 AA) with cytoplasmic domain which binds to actin cytoskeleton via catenins (catenin alpha, catenin beta and catenin gamma), single transmembrane domain, and extracellular domains which adhere to neighbouring cells and form a tight homophilic bond which is an important part in cell-cell adhesions, tissue architecture, cell differentiations and proliferations (Conacci-Sorrell et al., 2002; Roy and Berx, 2008).|
|Function|| CDH1 gene encodes for Cadherin protein which plays an important role in maintaining normal cell physiology like differentiation, growth, motility and tissue architecture through tight cell-cell adhesions (Conacci-Sorrell et al., 2002; Robertson and Jankowski, 2008).|
Loss of cell adhesions have been noted in cancers for a long time. CDH1 suppression has been associated with poorly differentiated, aggressive, metastatic cancers. Mutation in E-cadherin is also associated with breast, colorectal cancers, thyroid, endometrial, ovarian, head and neck, skin, prostate, bladder cancer and other tumours (Birchmeier, 1995).
|Germinal|| Germline mutations in CDH1 have been associated with HDGC. First mutations were described by Guilford et al. in three Maori families in New Zealand in 1998 (Guilford et al., 1998). Nowadays more than 50 different types of mutations have been described and new ones are emerging (Robertson and Jankowski, 2008). Types of mutations described are mainly truncating and missense mutations.|
Up to 50% of families meeting the criteria above, which was set by the International Gastric cancer Linkage Consortium (IGCLC) in 2004, will have mutations in CDH1 (Brooks-Wilson et al., 2004).
Promoter methylation of the wild type allele in the mutated CDH1 is associated with loss of gene expression and might work as a "second genetic hit" predisposing to cancer and explain the absence of loss of heterozygosity in this condition (Grady et al., 2000).
|Cloning and characterization of the human invasion suppressor gene E-cadherin (CDH1).|
|Berx G, Staes K, van Hengel J, Molemans F, Bussemakers MJ, van Bokhoven A, van Roy F.|
|Genomics. 1995 Mar 20;26(2):281-9.|
|E-cadherin as a tumor (invasion) suppressor gene.|
|Bioessays. 1995 Feb;17(2):97-9. (REVIEW)|
|Germline E-cadherin mutations in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: assessment of 42 new families and review of genetic screening criteria.|
|Brooks-Wilson AR, Kaurah P, Suriano G, Leach S, Senz J, Grehan N, Butterfield YS, Jeyes J, Schinas J, Bacani J, Kelsey M, Ferreira P, MacGillivray B, MacLeod P, Micek M, Ford J, Foulkes W, Australie K, Greenberg C, LaPointe M, Gilpin C, Nikkel S, Gilchrist D, Hughes R, Jackson CE, Monaghan KG, Oliveira MJ, Seruca R, Gallinger S, Caldas C, Huntsman D.|
|J Med Genet. 2004 Jul;41(7):508-17.|
|Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: implications of genetic testing for screening and prophylactic surgery.|
|Cisco RM, Ford JM, Norton JA.|
|Cancer. 2008 Oct 1;113(7 Suppl):1850-6.|
|The cadherin-catenin adhesion system in signaling and cancer.|
|Conacci-Sorrell M, Zhurinsky J, Ben-Ze'ev A.|
|J Clin Invest. 2002 Apr;109(8):987-91. (REVIEW)|
|Identification of germ-line E-cadherin mutations in gastric cancer families of European origin.|
|Gayther SA, Gorringe KL, Ramus SJ, Huntsman D, Roviello F, Grehan N, Machado JC, Pinto E, Seruca R, Halling K, MacLeod P, Powell SM, Jackson CE, Ponder BA, Caldas C.|
|Cancer Res. 1998 Sep 15;58(18):4086-9.|
|Methylation of the CDH1 promoter as the second genetic hit in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer.|
|Grady WM, Willis J, Guilford PJ, Dunbier AK, Toro TT, Lynch H, Wiesner G, Ferguson K, Eng C, Park JG, Kim SJ, Markowitz S.|
|Nat Genet. 2000 Sep;26(1):16-7.|
|E-cadherin germline mutations in familial gastric cancer.|
|Guilford P, Hopkins J, Harraway J, McLeod M, McLeod N, Harawira P, Taite H, Scoular R, Miller A, Reeve AE.|
|Nature. 1998 Mar 26;392(6674):402-5.|
|Early gastric cancer in young, asymptomatic carriers of germ-line E-cadherin mutations.|
|Huntsman DG, Carneiro F, Lewis FR, MacLeod PM, Hayashi A, Monaghan KG, Maung R, Seruca R, Jackson CE, Caldas C.|
|N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 21;344(25):1904-9.|
|Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer.|
|Kaurah P, Huntsman DG.|
|Principles and Practice of Gastrointestinal Oncology.|
|Kelsen DP, Van De Velde CJH, Minsky BD.|
|Second Edition 2008, Chapter 23, Gastric Cancer Management, Page 269.|
|Genetics, pathology, and clinics of familial gastric cancer.|
|Oliveira C, Seruca R, Carneiro F.|
|Int J Surg Pathol. 2006 Jan;14(1):21-33. (REVIEW)|
|Incidence of gastric cancer and breast cancer in CDH1 (E-cadherin) mutation carriers from hereditary diffuse gastric cancer families.|
|Pharoah PD, Guilford P, Caldas C; International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium.|
|Gastroenterology. 2001 Dec;121(6):1348-53.|
|Contribution of cyclin d1 (CCND1) and E-cadherin (CDH1) polymorphisms to familial and sporadic colorectal cancer.|
|Porter TR, Richards FM, Houlston RS, Evans DG, Jankowski JA, Macdonald F, Norbury G, Payne SJ, Fisher SA, Tomlinson I, Maher ER.|
|Oncogene. 2002 Mar 14;21(12):1928-33.|
|Genetics of gastroesophageal cancer: paradigms, paradoxes, and prognostic utility.|
|Robertson EV, Jankowski JA.|
|Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb;103(2):443-9. Epub 2007 Oct 9. (REVIEW)|
|Low frequency of germline E-cadherin mutations in familial and nonfamilial gastric cancer.|
|Stone J, Bevan S, Cunningham D, Hill A, Rahman N, Peto J, Marossy A, Houlston RS.|
|Br J Cancer. 1999 Apr;79(11-12):1935-7.|
|Textbook of Gastroenterology.|
|Yamada T, Leung WK, Ng EKW, Sung JJY.|
|Fifth Edition 2009 Page 1035.|
|The cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin.|
|van Roy F, Berx G.|
|Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Nov;65(23):3756-88. (REVIEW)|
|This paper should be referenced as such :|
|Saraj, O ; Jankowski, JA|
|Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC)|
|Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(6):599-601.|
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|On line version : https://atlasgeneticsoncology.usal.es/classic/Tumors/HereditaryDiffuseGastricCarcID10078.html|
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